are scripts that Git allows you to execute at certain points in the Git workflow. They are designed to trigger specific actions automatically, such as running tests, enforcing coding standards, or performing additional validations or tasks. Git hooks provide a way to customize and automate processes within a Git repository. Here's an overview of Git hooks and how they can be used:
1. Types of Git hooks:
Git provides two types of hooks: client-side hooks and server-side hooks.
- Client-side hooks:
These hooks run on the client-side (i.e., the developer's machine) during specific Git operations, such as committing or merging changes. They are not shared with the remote repository.
Some examples of client-side hooks:
Runs before committing changes and allows you to perform pre-commit validations, such as running tests or linting code.
Executes before pushing changes to a remote repository, allowing you to run additional checks or tests before pushing the code.
- Server-side hooks:
These hooks run on the server-side (i.e., the remote repository) when specific actions are triggered, such as receiving a pushed commit. They are shared with collaborators who interact with the remote repository.
Some examples of server-side hooks:
Runs before accepting pushed commits and allows you to perform checks on the incoming changes, such as validating commit messages or enforcing access controls.
Executes after accepting pushed commits and can be used to trigger actions like sending notifications or updating a production environment.
2. Creating Git hooks:
To use Git hooks in a repository, you need to create executable scripts with specific names in the `.git/hooks` directory. Git automatically recognizes these scripts and executes them at the appropriate times.
For example, to create a pre-commit hook, you would create a file named `.git/hooks/pre-commit` and make it executable.
# pre-commit hook script
# Add your custom actions here
You can write the script in any scripting language supported by your system.
3. Customizing Git hooks:
Git hooks allow you to customize actions to fit your specific needs. You can modify the hook scripts to perform actions such as running tests, code formatting, static analysis, checking for prohibited patterns, or triggering notifications.
For instance, in a pre-commit hook, you could run a linter on the staged files to ensure they conform to your coding standards. If the linter detects issues, the commit is prevented until the issues are resolved.
4. Sharing Git hooks:
It's important to note that Git hooks are not part of the repository's version control. They reside in the `.git/hooks` directory, which is not shared with collaborators during cloning or pushing. If you want to share Git hooks with other developers, you need to distribute the scripts manually or use other means, such as documentation or a project-specific setup guide.
are a powerful feature that allows you to enforce development best practices, automate repetitive tasks, and maintain consistency within a project. They help improve the quality and reliability of your codebase by running checks or tasks at critical points in the Git workflow.