Authentication and authorization are two distinct concepts related to user access and security in a software application, including Angular applications. Authentication: Authentication is the process of verifying the identity of a user or entity. It ensures that the user is who they claim to be. Authentication typically involves presenting credentials, such as a username and password, to prove identity. Once authenticated, the user is granted access to the application. In the context of an Angular application, authentication is the process of verifying the identity of a user before allowing access to protected parts of the application. This can be achieved by implementing a login system where users provide their credentials and the application validates them against stored user data or an authentication service. Upon successful authentication, the user receives an authentication token or session, which is used to identify the user and grant access to restricted areas of the application. Authorization: Authorization is the process of granting or denying access to specific resources or functionalities within an application. It determines what a user is allowed to do or access based on their authenticated identity and assigned permissions. Authorization controls what actions or operations a user can perform within the application. In an Angular application, authorization comes into play after authentication. Once a user is authenticated, the application needs to enforce access control rules to determine whether the user has the necessary permissions to perform certain actions or access specific parts of the application. This can involve roles, permissions, or other access control mechanisms. For example, an administrator may have access to certain administrative features or data, while a regular user may have limited access. To implement authorization in an Angular application, developers typically define roles and permissions, and then apply checks and guards throughout the application to ensure that only authorized users can perform certain actions or access certain routes or components. This can involve implementing role-based access control (RBAC) or using other authorization frameworks or libraries. In summary, the basic difference between authentication and authorization is that authentication verifies the identity of a user, while authorization controls what actions or resources that authenticated user is allowed to access within the application. Authentication is about verifying who you are, while authorization is about determining what you can do once your identity is established.